Developing hazard maps and environmental quality assessment in mining areas of Maramures and Satu Mare counties using geographic information systems
The subsoil natural resources (polymetallic ores) in Maramureş and Satu Mare counties favored the development of mining, at the same time representing the source of pollution of environmental factors. Mining areas are affected by the emission and dispersion of polluting sources, over 100 years, with a strong intensification in the last 50 years. The main sources of pollution are: active or closed mining, tailings, tailings ponds, ore preparation plants, metallurgical plants, through mine waters, gases, powders, mainly heavy metals carriers (Pb, Zn, Cu , As, Cd, Mn, Ti, Cr, etc), cyanides, xanthates. Industrial activities have led, in the respective areas, to the emergence of intense sources of environmental pollution with harmful effects on the human health. The effect in time of the mentioned processes and emissions has generated an inhomogeneous accumulation (in time and space). The study aims to inventory, quantitatively and qualitatively assess the polluting elements in their territorial distribution, favored by natural hazards (landslides, floods). Using GIS techniques, terrain maps, complex chemical analyzes, the natural factors determining environmental degradation (climatic, hydrological, geomorphological) will be analyzed, elaborating thematic maps of natural hazards under the impact of mining activities, proposals and solutions for monitoring phenomena, for an adequate management for sustainable development in the context of national and European environmental protection legislation. Harmonizing the specificity of the research with the strategy of the development of the North-West region, the study aims at the cross-border approach of the environmental problems, the implementation of the modern methodology of the young researchers (doctoral students / masters), the awareness of the local population, the support of the local authorities and the mining companies.
- CNCSIS 150/2006, Ministry of Education and Research
- Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Cluj
- Northern University, Baia-Mare
- Babeş-Bolyai University of Cluj
- Geoproiect SA Baia Mare
- A rigorous analysis of the contaminated soil will be carried out so that the distribution of the polluting metals can be determined both vertically (in depth) and horizontally (up to a distance of about 500 m from the source of pollution)
- Correlation of elements migration pollutants with physical and chemical characteristics of the soil.
- Real-time knowledge of the stage and evolution of the ecological degree of mining areas adversely affected by the exploitation and preparation of useful minerals;
- The creation of a spatial and temporal database for critical areas
- The creation of thematic relief maps with special attention on the forms of anthropic origin and their dynamics: tailings dumps, tailings ponds, but especially on their degree of stability or instability;
- Elaborating natural and anthropic hazard maps in mining areas according to current legislation.